Journal Name: Transcultural Management Review Vol.2 November 2005
What Was Actually Lost in the Lost Decade? (pp3-18)
Risaburo NEZU (Managing Director, Fujitsu Research Institute)
During the 1990s, Japanese conceded its overwhelmingly dominant position in the IT industry to the US and a few other Asian countries. This was in large part because of the inability of Japanese corporations to adapt themselves to the new production paradigm, a model where the production process is broken up into the different stages of a value chain and each stage can be dealt with by different companies. This type of modular production, which suits digital technology particularly well, diminished the advantages of the integrated production process that Japanese companies were so good at. While Japanese companies are now making efforts to streamline and concentrate their production process, it is far from clear how they can recover their industrial might. A drastic transformation of the industrial structure is needed to ensure that young and dynamic new comers can play a greater role in rebuilding the Japanese IT industry.
Keywords: modular production, integrated production process, semiconductor, smile curve, EMS, foundry, disruptive innovation
Metanational Competition and Cross-Cultural Management (pp19-30)
Masataka OTA (Professor of International Business, Faculty of Commerce, Waseda University)
The global competition of the 20th century forced MNCs (multinational corporations) to put the first priority on global reach strategy to capitalize on global rationalization and efficiency. In the 21st century, however, it is crucial to take a more sophisticated response to the needs and values of each local market dispersed in the global network, while facilitating a cross-cultural learning process among these diversified markets. As markets are globalized, MNCs are challenged to be more responsive to tyranny of distance and stickness of information or knowledge. In such a metanational competition, the role of cross-cultural management approach is more important than ever. One of the greatest missions for research and study of cross-cultural management is to develop leaders and managers who are equipped with excellent capabilities and skills to manage cultural context through zero-based communication behaviors.
Keywords: metanational, global knowledge economies, tyranny of distance, stickiness of information and knowledge, context management
War for Talent - Global Competition Starts with China (pp31-40)
Tatsuya KODAIRA (Manager, China HR consulting Department, Pasona Tech, Inc.)
In this paper I want to consider "War for Talent in China", through the idea of how Chinese white collar workers think about careers in Japanese companies, patterns of human resources management, and Japanese companies which borrow HRM strategy from Chinese companies.
Keywords: talent, 7% problem, career strategy of Chinese white collar workers, pattern of human resources management, global war for talent
CSR and the Issue of Japanese Corporation (pp41-54)
Kanae TERAMOTO (Doctor's course at the International School of Economics and Business Administration, Reitaku University)
Minoru IDEYAMA (Master's course at the International School of Economics and Business Administration, Reitaku University)
Iwao TAKA (Professor at the International School of Economics and Business Administration, Reitaku University)
In this paper, we focus upon Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Roughly speaking, there are two questions raised here. The first question is, "Why is CSR required now?" or "Is CSR a logical consequence of human history?" The second question is, "What does Japan expect business to do for the benefit of Japanese society?" As for the first question, we believe that the moral philosophy of Adam Smith gives us a clear answer. With regard to the second question, European experiences in the 1990s provide us with meaningful suggestions, which help us identify what kind of CSR Japanese industries have to initiate. We assume that the Consumer Rights Protection Fund will take an integral part in the Japanese version of CSR.
Keywords: CSR, contexualism, European integration, innate goodness of corporation, consumer rights protection fund
Why Are "Made in USA" Automobiles Not Selling Well in Japan?
-"Teach" Pattern Culture vs. "Learn" Pattern Culture- (pp55-69)
Toshifumi OKUI (President, Harley-Davidson Japan, K.K.)
The American automobile industry has developed with overwhelming superiority in its history but has not gained good ground in the Japanese market. I believe the reason for this lies in the "Teach" pattern culture of the USA. "Teach" pattern culture is muscular, strong and reasonable on one hand but lacks sensitivity to other indigenous cultures on the other. While it is considered necessary to address detailed necessities and specifications proper to each local market even for automobiles that have highly common ground wherever we go in the world, American automobile manufactures thought they had a world-wide standard and could not address local necessities, from which people in the international market have not necessarily given high points for the qualities of their products.
Japan stands completely opposite from the US and has a "Learn" pattern of culture, in which Japanese will see, listen and learn from others and that attitude worked well for the development of the industry. Harley-Davidson has recorded the highest number of registrations in Japan of completed vehicles among all American motor manufactures, and it seems to me that with the cooperation of the concerned parties in Japan and the US, Harley-Davidson has luckily overcome the elements which are considered as reasons for the lack of success of American automobiles in the Japanese market.
Keywords: "Teach" pattern culture, "Learn" pattern culture, brand, motorization, localization
Communication challenges between Americans and Japanese in the Workplace (pp70-77)
Rochelle KOPP (Managing Principal, Japan Intercultural Consulting)
There are various cultural differences that can lead to communication challenges between Japanese and Americans when they work together. In this article I present various case studies based on my observation working with Japanese multinationals in the United States, and discuss the historical and cultural roots that can lead to misunderstanding, as well as how to overcome them.
Keywords: hybrid culture (combining strengths of Japanese and American approaches), U.S. business culture-individualism, role clarity, Japanese business culture-collaboration, ambiguous role
State of the Art in Intercultural Management (pp78-90)
Kichiro HAYASHI, Ph.D. (Professor Emeritus, Aoyama Gakuin University
Faculty, Summer Institute of Intercultural Communication, Portland, Oregon)
Empirical research indicates that the globalization of management remains way behind the globalization of business for Japan-based multinationals. This paper points out the 7 burning issues confronted today but not properly recognized by Japan-based multinationals; and discusses the underpinnings of these issues in terms of analog and digital mindsets. The author argues that the analog mindset is a mental model of both Japanese researchers and practitioners in that they are not aware of their own assumptions. The primary focus is the concept of transforming mutually contradictory, repulsive energy of analog and digital forces into higher creativity and innovation through intercultural facilitation skills. The paper also indicates 6 recent effective tools for corporate training.
Keywords: globalization of management, analog and digital mindsets, mental model, repulsive energy, intercultural facilitation
Deciding Factors for Continuous Working
-Female Researchers' Case- (pp91-105)
Toyoko KATO (Ph.D.Candidate, Hosei University, Graduate School)
This research examined key factors for staying at a company by comparing the HRM of pharmaceutical companies. In company A, most of the female researchers tend to leave the company within ten years of joining, whereas in company B, many female researchers continue working. A gender difference was found in Company A, whereas in Company B, a gender difference was not found. The gender difference may be the deciding factor for continuous working. If companies manage people without gender difference, female researchers might be motivated and continue working.
Keywords: continuous working, pharmaceutical companies, female researchers, gender difference, role model
Appointing an American the New Chief Technology Officer (pp106-116)
Masataka ASANO (Adviser, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation)
Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation carried on the organizational reform of R&D with a newly appointed American chief technology Officer who was expected to have no stereotype about R&D. After, his staff tried their best for reform for two years, and the goal has nearly been reached. However, it developed that there are many challenges.
Keywords: research and development, foreign leaders, organization reform, leadership, feelings of Japanese
Conflict of Corporate Culture in Cross Border M&A
Hiroyuki OKAMOTO (Professor, College of International Relations, Nihon University)
Over the last decade, multinational enterprises have increased cross border merger and acquisition (M&A) as one of the most suitable techniques for aggressive own strategic realization. When merger and acquisition is done cross border, the difference of corporate culture between two companies becomes a more serious problem. M&A between companies where nationality is different falls into the situation of four culture conditions to be different. The cross border M&A can be called "merger with cultures and cultures." Many management executive officers, however, are apt to underestimate the existence of a culture fortress in each company before and after the unification, although these promote M&A notice the importance of corporate culture as an intangible asset for the future development. "Cultural due diligence," which investigates the culture of a partner thoroughly and systematically at the negotiation stage, is essential to prevent confusion by "compulsion unification of culture" after merger and acquisition.
Keywords: cross border M&A, corporate culture, intangible asset, culture fortress, cultural due diligence